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Featured publications

Nano- and Microplastic PBK modeling in the context of human exposure and risk assessment

Wardani, I., Nor, N. H. M., Wright, S. L., Kooter, I. M., & Koelmans, A. A.

A framework that consists of the QA/QC screening of biodistribution studies and application of probability density functions to tackle the complexity of NMP exposure and effect alignment

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Lifetime accumulation of microplastic in children and adults


Mohamed Nor, N.H., Kooi, M., Diepens, N.J. & Koelmans, A.A.

A probabilistic lifetime exposure model for children and adults, which accounts for intake via eight food types and inhalation, intestinal absorption, biliary excretion and plastic-associated chemical exposure via a physiologically based pharmacokinetic submodel. 


Microplastics in freshwaters and drinking water: critical review and assessment of data quality


Koelmans, A. A., Nor, N. H. M., Hermsen, E., Kooi, M., Mintenig, S. M., & De France, J.

Fifty studies on microplastics were reviewed, including river and lake water, ground water, tap water and bottled drinking water. The quality of the studies was assessed quantitatively. Only four out of fifty studies scored positive on all quality criteria.

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Quality criteria for microplastic effect studies in the context of risk assessment: a critical review


de Ruijter, V. N., Redondo-Hasselerharm, P. E., Gouin, T., & Koelmans, A. A.

We set 20 quality criteria, focusing on particle characteristics, experimental design and ecological relevance. 105 Studies were reviewed, with none of the studies scoring positive on all 20 criteria, stressing the need for better quality assurance.


Simplifying microplastic via continuous probability distributions for size, shape, and density


Kooi, M. & Koelmans, A.A.

Microplastics are diverse in size, shape and density. Any discrete classification fails to capture the continuous nature of the environmental mixtures. We present continuous distributions that describe microplastic properties. These distributions can be used for proabilistic risk modelling.

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Solving the nonalignment of methods and approaches used in microplastic research to consistently characterize risk

Koelmans, A. A., Redondo-Hasselerharm, P. E., Mohamed Nor, N. H., & Kooi, M.

The lack of standard approaches in microplastic research limits progress. We present and test rescaling methods to improve the alighment of methods used, focussing on size ranges, particle size, volume and mass, and finally on species sensitivity distributions.

Recent publications

Wardani, I., Nor, N. H. M., Wright, S. L., Kooter, I. M., & Koelmans, A. A. (2024). Nano-and Microplastic PBK modeling in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. Environment International, 108504.

Wang, S., Mintenig, S.M., Cheng C., Wu, J., Koelmans, A.A. 2024. Extent and risks of microplastic pollution in the Yangtze River. State of the Science. Sci. Total Environ., 910,  168538

de Ruijter, V.N., Hof, M., Kotorou, P. van Leeuwen, J., van den Heuvel-Greve, M.J., Roessink, I., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. Microplastic effects tests should use a standard heterogeneous mixture: Multifarious impacts among sixteen benthic invertebrate species detected, under ecologically relevant conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol.

Mitrano, D.M., Bigalke, M., Booth, A.M., Carteny, C., Coffin, S., Egger, M., Gondikas, A., Hueffer, T., Koelmans, A.A., Lahive, E., Mattson, K., Reynaud, S., Wagner, S. 2023. Training the next generation of plastics pollution researchers: tools, skills and career perspectives in an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary field. Micropl.&Nanopl. 3, 24, 

Barchiesi, M., Kooi, M., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. Adding depth to Microplastics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 

Mohamed Nor, N.H., Niu, Z., Hennebelle, N., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. How digestive processes can affect bioavailability of PCBs associated with microplastics. A modelling study supported by empirical data. Environ. Sci. Technol. 


Grundlehner, A., Diepens, N.J., Linders, T., Peeters, E.T.H.M., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. Towards continuous mass and size distributions for beach plastic litter: Spatiotemporal analyses of abundance and compositions. J. Haz. Mat. 458, 131984.


Koelmans, A.A., Gebreyohanes Belay, B.M., Mintenig, S.M., Mohamed Nor, N.H., Redondo-Hasselerharm, P.E., de Ruijter, V.N. 2023. Towards a rational and efficient risk assessment for microplastics. TrAC. 165, 117142.


Quik, J.T.K., Meesters, J.A.J., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. A multimedia model to estimate environmental fate of microplastic particles. Sci. Total Environ. 163437


Koelmans, A.A., Redondo-Hasselerharm, P.E., Mohamed Nor, N.H., Gouin, T. 2023. On the probability of ecological risks from microplastics in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Environ. Poll. 325, 121445  

Bäuerlein, P.S., Erich, M.W., van Loon, W., Mintenig, S.M., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. A monitoring and data analysis method for microplastics in marine sediments. Mar. Environ. Res. 183, 105804.

Nizamali, J., Mintenig, S.M., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. Assessing microplastic characteristics in bottled drinking water and air deposition samples using laser direct infrared imaging J. Hazard. Mater.

Redondo-Hasselerharm, P.E., Rico, A., Koelmans, A.A. 2023. Risk assessment of microplastics in freshwater benthic ecosystems guided by strict quality criteria and data alignment methods. J. Hazard. Mater. 441, 129814.

Alkema, L., van Lissa, C.J., Kooi, M., Koelmans, A.A. 2022. Maximizing realism: mapping marine plastics using mixtures of normal distributions, Environ. Sci. Technol.

O'Connor, J., Lally, H., Mahon, A.M., O'Connor, I. Nash, R., O'Sullivan, J., Bruen, M., Heerey, L., Koelmans, A.A., Marnell, F., Murphy, S. 2022. Microplastics in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) spraints and their potential as a biomonitoring tool in freshwater systems. Ecosphere.

Thornton Hampton, L.M., Brander, S., Coffin, S., Cole, M., Hermabessiere, L., Koelmans, A.A., Rochman, C.M. 2022. Characterizing microplastic hazards: Which concentration metrics and particle characteristics are most informative for understanding toxicity in aquatic organisms? Micropl.&Nanopl. 2, 20.

Coffin, S., Weisberg, S.B., Rochman, C.M., Kooi, M., Koelmans, A.A. 2022. Risk Characterization of Microplastics in San Francisco Bay, California. Micropl.&Nanopl. 2,19.

Mehinto, A.C., Coffin, S., Koelmans, A.A., Brander, S.M., Wagner, M., Thornton Hampton, L.M., Burton, G.A., Miller, E., Gouin, T., Weisberg, S.B., Rochman, C.M. 2022. Risk-Based Management Framework for Microplastics in Aquatic Ecosystems. Micropl.&Nanopl. 2, 17.

Thornton Hampton, L.M., Lowman, H., Coffin, S., Darin, E., De Frond, H., Hermabessiere, L., Miller, E., de Ruijter, V.N., Faltynkova, A., Kotar, S., Anglada, L.M., Siddiqui, S., Völker, J., Brander, S., Koelmans, A.A., Rochman, C., Wagner, M., Mehinto, A.C. 2022. A Living Tool for the Continued Exploration of Microplastic Toxicity, Micropl.&Nanopl. 2, 13.


Coffin, S., Bouwmeester, H., Brander, S., Damdimopoulou, P., Gouin, T., Hermabessiere, L., Khan, E., Koelmans, A.A., Lemieux, C.L., Teerds, K., Wagner, M., Weisberg, S.B., Wright, S. 2022. Development and application of a health-based framework for informing regulatory action in relation to exposure of microplastic particles in California drinking water, Microplastics & Nanoplastics. 2, 12.

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